Difference Between Various Option Types

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Difference between various data types

quite newbie question: in RM5, which is the difference between “numeric” and “real” in defining metadata? Where could I find a quick help on topics like these? the “rapidminer-5.0-manual-english_v1.0.pdf” and “rapidminer-4.6-tutorial.pdf” does not talk about these simple subjects.

Answers

Hi,
actually numeric is the supertype of real and integer.
The same is nominal for polynominal, text and binominal.

Thanks. Does some of the documentation specify this? Or it is supposed that I should read the code

Hi.
unless you want to take a look into the manual, that would be a perfect idea. Anyway I would think reading the manual until page 12 is more easy.

Sebastian,
I have read the page 12 of the manual, and I can’t see a difference between both, nominal and polynominal. Because both can handle categorical values. I mean, if you have the variable “color” (red, green and blue), you’ll have a categorical variable, and therefore a nominal variable, is it not redundant the “poly” prefix?
What would be the difference, alghorithmically speaking, between them ? (the same for numerical)

Thanks in advance.
Pablo.

you are right: from an algorithmic point of view there is currently no difference between “polynominal” and “nominal”. As far as I know, all operators which can handle one of both can automatically handle both (please correct me somebody if I forgot an operator where this would indeed make a difference). But who knows: Maybe there is such a difference later on for a new operator and the used ontology can be seen as a preparation for that. However, in today’s practical processses you will be perfectly fine by using one of both options and just make sure that all operators are happy

The same is true for numerical value types although I think that there actually are (or at least: was) some algorithm which really has relied on the fact that the input has to be “real” instead of “numerical”.

Ingo Mierswa wrote:
Hi Pablo,

you are right: from an algorithmic point of view there is currently no difference between “polynominal” and “nominal”. As far as I know, all operators which can handle one of both can automatically handle both (please correct me somebody if I forgot an operator where this would indeed make a difference). But who knows: Maybe there is such a difference later on for a new operator and the used ontology can be seen as a preparation for that. However, in today’s practical processses you will be perfectly fine by using one of both options and just make sure that all operators are happy

The same is true for numerical value types although I think that there actually are (or at least: was) some algorithm which really has relied on the fact that the input has to be “real” instead of “numerical”.

Cheers,
Ingo

Hi,
actually I doubt this because each Polynomial attribute is a nominal attribute.
I think you are trying to compute the distance between “mule” and “donkey”. What is the distance? There’s only one sane answer: 1. And whats the distance between “mule” and “horse”? Yes, 1. “mule” and “mule” would be zero, if you don’t have already guessed.

RapidMiner currently provides only this distance measure between nominal values. So I doubt a process comparing wordlists per row does make any sense at all?

hi sebastian, thanks fir your answers, in both of the threads, yes indeed this would help if all permutations are calculated, therefore each row of vector a with each row of vector b. in the optimal case the operator which i am looking for would give me a 1 in the case of a match a zero otherwise. is there something like this? because i am looking for a, to follow your example, a mule-mule match! i have tried cross distances and but the results are completely strange; even if there should be a match, seen by comparing the lists myself, it gives me a 1 distance. so i guess i am not handling this operator right.

best regards, andre

Ingo Mierswa wrote:
Hi Pablo,

you are right: from an algorithmic point of view there is currently no difference between “polynominal” and “nominal”. As far as I know, all operators which can handle one of both can automatically handle both (please correct me somebody if I forgot an operator where this would indeed make a difference). [. ]

Cheers,
Ingo

I indeed noticed an operator where the distinction between nominal and polynominal makes a differnce. I am often building web mining processes where extracted data is incrementally written to a database (appended to a table). The same process is repeated after a few days to collect data that was missed during the first run (timeouts etc.) and recently added contents.
To find only those examples I import the relevant URLs (Read Excel) and load the already collected items from database (Read Database). Both operators are followed by “Set Role” to set IDs. Finally the “Set Minus” operator builds the desired example set. The attribute obtained from database is usually nominal and the one from the Excel file is of type polynominal. Process execetuion is interrupted as the “Set Minus” operator complains about incompatible types and requests an attribute of type polynominal. Since there is no convenient way of changing the attribute obtained from database from nominal to polynominal, I always set nominal instead of polynominal for the “Read Excel” operator. Doesn’t mean much trouble for me, but shows a case where there is a difference between both types. I don’t know if it is necessary there.

What is the difference between various types of ‘Embedding’ of a form?

Что такое JotForm?

JotForm is a free online form builder which helps you create online forms without writing a single line of code.

At JotForm, we want to make sure that you’re getting the online form builder help that you need. Our friendly customer support team is available 24/7.

We believe that if one user has a question, there could be more users who may have the same question. This is why many of our support forum threads are public and available to be searched and viewed. If you’d like help immediately, feel free to search for a similar question, or submit your question or concern.

Why do you not want to answer this thread?
(Your answer will be sent to Jim and Aytekin)

I don’t understand how to make the link on my website to the various types of ‘Embedding’ of the form other than the standard ‘Embed’.

i.e. ‘Pop-up’ ‘Lightbox’ etc.

I have created a section under my website to test how the EMBEB types works, you can take a look at it here JotForm Embeb types

I hope this answer you question.

If you need help regarding how to implement any of the EMBEB types feel free to ask i will happy to help.

That is certainly a good way to see the difference, and thank you for that Huberson.

Now since there is visual, I will try to explain the same with words.

You could say that there are 2 categories of the embed options:

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1. forms that get shown from a button – lightbox / feedback / pop-up and

2. forms that are embedded directly into the body – iframe embed, embed (js embed), source code embed

LightBox embed is often used if you wish to show a form within the same window when the page loads or after the user clicks on specific field, etc.

Feedback embed is quite similar to lightbox, but it is often shown on the form in a form of a button – such as in Huberson’s example, being orange button on the left.

– What both of these have in common is that once they open, the rest of your website is “locked” as you can only see the form, so it is often used for signups to email newsletters and similar.

Pop-up embed code is great if you want to have the form shown, but in the same time to make the website shown as before. So online the above two methods of embedding it will open up a popup to show you the form. This is great for forms that might need to be filled out with some data from the website as well – for example if you explain all the themes and events available in Disneyland and you offer various purchase options for the same on your form, this would be a great way to allow everyone to read what they want and quickly make decision on their forms.

Now embed or also known as js (javascript) embed code is a great way to embed a dynamically adjusted form on your website. It will capture the full available width and show the form within it and alter its height as needed.

This as the following embed codes are great when you want your form to be part of your website – actually take some space in it. This creates a more welcoming feeling to the form as it is seen as direct part of your website.

The only downside of the js embed code is that sometimes it can be affected by other javascript code on your website and not work properly.

Iframe embed code is as it suggests, your form within the iframe. It is followed by the javascript code that also adjusts its height as in js embed code, but the iframe embed can not be influenced by other codes on your website and as such is a recommended way to embed your form if you are using many plugins on your website.

Source code embed is the best option if you want to make your own edits to the form. While it could be broken by other code on your website and even influenced by CSS of your own website, it is the only way to go if you need to add some extra functionality to it.

This is often used for rare cases where form builder can not create something, while your developers can – such as retrieving data from within your database to add it up to the form, and similar.

Now hopefully you will have a clearer picture of what each is about when you read this and check out the samples provided by Huberson, but if you have any questions, do let us know and me and my colleagues would be happy to assist :)

This Is The Difference Between Every Type Of Condom, Because You Have Options

When it comes to condoms, the traditional, latex condom is typically the first thing that comes to mind. However, there are actually several types of condoms that can keep you protected during just about any sex act that strikes your fancy. The differences between every type of condom are important to understand when deciding which one is best for you and your partner(s). That’s why knowing about the various options out there is so important.

According to the US Food & Drug Administration, condoms are a very reliable way to avoid pregnancy and certain STDs, but unfortunately, no type of condom is 100 percent effective. “When used consistently and correctly, condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV,” according to the FDA’s website. “They are also effective at preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that are transmitted through bodily fluids, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. However, they provide less protection against STDs spread through skin-to-skin contact like human papillomavirus (genital warts), genital herpes, and syphilis.”

“The only way to guarantee you are having safe sex is to take control of your sexual health,” licensed relationship therapist Eboni HarrisВ tells Elite Daily. “This means having condoms available. You don’t have to have all of the condom options but keeping a few of the ones related to your most common sexual acts would be convenient.” It’s also important to realize that not every type of condom provides the same amount of protection, which is why being aware of the efficiency of the specific type you choose to use is so important. So, here’s what you need to know.

1. Standard Condoms

When most of us think of condoms, the standard latex variety is usually what comes to mind. However, within this category, there are actually a bunch of variations. Non-latex condoms, for example, are a great alternative for people who have allergies to traditional condom materials. These alternative materials include polyurethane, polyisoprene, lambskin, nitrile, and silicone. Spermicidal condoms are pre-treated with spermicide, a contraceptive gel that kills and immobilizes sperm. But, according to Health.com, these types of condoms are actually 97 percent effective while traditional condoms without spermicides are 98 percent effective, on average.

If you’re looking to keep things fun, novelty condoms are also available. That includes flavored varieties, glow in the dark, and special ribbing for enhanced stimulation.

2. Internal Condoms

Also referred to as female condoms, internal condoms are another good option when it comes to protection against both pregnancy and STDs. According to Planned Parenthood, despite their gender-specific label, these types of condoms can actually be used by anyone.

“Instead of going on the penis, internal condoms go inside your vagina for pregnancy prevention or into the vagina or anus for protection from STDs,” wrote Planned Parenthood. “If you use them perfectly every single time you have sex, internal condom effectiveness is 95%. But people aren’t perfect, so in real life they’re about 79% effective.”

3. Gloves

Even though surgical gloves might not seem like a form of protection against STDs, according to Planned Parenthood, there are STDs that can be passed from genital fluids into the bloodstream via broken skin on the hand. So if you’d like to be fully protected during manual sex (any kind of sexual activity involving hands and genitals), then gloves could be a good option for you.

4. Finger Cots

“A finger cot is basically a mini-condom that is used to cover one finger,” explains Harris. “It provides protection during fingering of the vagina or anus and can protect you and your partner if you have long nails or a cut on your finger. The upside of using finger cots is that their appearance is a bit more discrete than a fully gloved hand, however, according to Elizabeth Boskey, PhD, they aren’t the most effective.

While not highly likely, it’s possible for an STD to enter your system through a cut or sore on your hand that comes in contact with the infected genitals of a sexual partner. “Although recommending finger cots was a standard part of HIV education in the 1980s and 90s, they’re not commonly used,” wrote Dr. Boskey on VeryWell Health. “Why? Because finger cots are both difficult to find and not particularly useful. Gloves work far better at protecting the skin.”

5. Dental Dams

For those who aren’t familiar with dental dams, they’re basically a type of condom used to avoid STD transmission during oral sex. “Without the protection afforded by dental dams, one can easily contract an STD through the exchange of vaginal fluid or blood if one of the partners is already infected,” wrote Dawn Stacey, PhD, LMHC on VeryWell. “Dental dams can also act as a barrier against parasites during oral-anal sex.”

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it’s possible to contract an STD “in the mouth or throat” from both giving and receiving oral sex. “It also may be possible to get certain STDs on the penis (and possibly the vagina, anus or rectum) from getting oral sex from a partner with a mouth or throat infection,” says the website.

At the end of the day, different types of sex come with different risk factors. That said, protected sex is such an important part of the reproductive and overall health of both you and all of your sexual partners. If you’re still undecided on which form of protection is best for you, reaching out to your health care provider for more information is always a good idea.

Difference between Options and Futures

A market much bigger than equities is the equity derivatives market in India. Derivatives basically consist of 2 key products in India viz Options and Futures. The difference between future and options is that while futures are linear, options are not linear. Derivatives mean that they do not have any value of their own but their value is derived from an underlying asset. For example, options and futures on Reliance Industries will be linked to the stock price of Reliance Industries and will derive their value from the same. Options and Futures trading constitutes an important part of the Indian equity markets. Let us understand the differences between Options and Futures and how equity futures and the options market form an integral part of the overall equity market

What are futures and options?

A future is a right and an obligation to buy or sell an underlying stock (or other assets) at a predetermined price and deliverable at a predetermined time. Options are a right without an obligation to buy or sell equity or index. A call option is a right to buy while a put option is a right to sell.

So, how do I benefit from options and futures?

Let us look at futures first. Assume that you want to buy 1500 shares of Tata Motors at a price of Rs.400. That will entail an investment of Rs.6 lakhs. Alternatively, you can also buy 1 lot (consisting of 1500 shares) of Tata Motors. The advantage is that when you buy futures, you only pay the margin which (let us say) is around 20% of the full value. That means your profits will be five-fold that of when you are invested in equities. But, the losses could also be five-fold and that is the risk of leveraged trades.

An option is a right without an obligation. So, you can buy a Tata Motors 400 call option at a price of Rs.10. Since the lot size is 1500 shares, your maximum loss will be Rs.15,000 only. On the downside, even if Tata Motors goes to Rs.300, your loss will only be Rs.15,000. On the upside, above Rs.410 your profits will be unlimited.

How to trade in Options and Futures?

Options and Futures are traded in contracts of 1 month, 2 months and 3 months. All F&O contracts will expire on the last Thursday of the month. Futures will trade at a futures price which is normally at a premium to the spot price due to the time value. There will only be one futures price for a stock for one contract. Like in Jan 2020, one can trade in Jan Futures, Feb futures and March futures of Tata Motors. Trading in options is slightly more complicated as you actually trade the premiums. So, there will be different strikes traded for the same stock for call options and for put options. So, in the case of Tata Motors, the call options premium of 400 call will be Rs.10 while these option prices will be progressively lower as your strikes go higher.

Understanding some Options and Futures basics

Futures offer the advantage of trading equities with a margin. But the risks are unlimited on the opposite side irrespective of whether you are long or short on the futures. When it comes to options, the buyer can limit losses to the extent of the premium paid only. Since options are non-linear, they are more amenable to complex Options and Futures strategies. When you buy are sell futures you are required to pay upfront margin and mark-to-market (MTM) margins. When you sell an option also you are required to pay initial margins and MTM margins. However, when you buy options you are only required to pay the premium margins. That is all!

Understanding the quadrants of Options and Futures

When it comes to futures the periphery is quite simple. If you expect the stock price to go up then you buy futures on the stock and if you expect the stock price to go down then you sell futures on the stock or the index. Options will have 4 possibilities. Let us understand each one of them with a Options and Futures trading example. Let us assume that Infosys is currently quoting at Rs.1000. Let us understand how different traders will use different kinds of options based on their outlook.

  1. Investor A expects Infosys to go up to Rs.1150 over the next 2 months. The best strategy for him will be buying a call option on Infosys of 1050 strike. He will get to participate in the upside by paying a much lower premium
  2. Investor B expects Infosys to go down to Rs.900 over the next 1 month. The best approach for him will be to buy put options on Infosys of 980 strikes. He can easily participate in the downside movement and make profits after his premium cost is covered
  3. Investor C is not sure of the downside in Infosys. However, he is certain that with the pressure on the stock from global markets, Infosys will not cross 1080. He can sell Infosys 1100 call option and take home the entire premium
  4. Investor D is not sure of the upside potential of Infosys. However, he is certain that considering its recent management changes, the stock should not dip below Rs.920. A good strategy for him will be too sell the 900 put option and take the entire premium

Options and Futures are conceptually different but intrinsically they are the same as they try to profit from stock or an index without investing the full sum!

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